At first, I want to clarify that I am a Bangladeshi. My beautiful motherland Bangladesh is a small country in South Asia, bordering India, Myanmar. It has a 1,47,570 square kilometers area. If you want to know about Bangladesh read my other post. From the prehistoric age, Bangladesh has Faced mass natural disasters every decade for climate change. We can’t say that there is no contribution of Bangladeshi people. I try to make a figure out those and write down below :
Population: According to world population prospect ( 2019 revision ) Bangladesh has more than 163 million population which makes it no:8th position in the world’s population. A study on global environmental change in 2009 determined that One child can produce 20 times more greenhouse gas than a person will save by driving a high-mileage car, recycling, using energy-efficient appliances and light bulbs, etc. The size of the carbon legacy is closely tied to consumption patterns. Under current conditions, a child born in the United States will be responsible for almost seven times the carbon emissions of a child born in China and 168 times the impact of a child born in Bangladesh. The fertility rate is now at 2.4 children born per woman. About 2,000 people are living per square kilometer. Per inch of Bangladesh is so important for this overpopulation instead every year so many people are becoming homeless due to flood. Bangladeshi are mainly depending on wood for cooking. For cooking and purify the water they burn huge amounts of fossil fuels which are the source of CO2 and vapor. The population of the urban and rural places has a scarcity of food, water, shelter even many can’t fill their basic needs. Maintenance of this huge population and filled their all need is really a challenge for the government.
Pollution: I clearly remembered all those college time I was going to my tuition class every early morning. This time I had some scope to see scavengers morning work. They swept all waste on the street and market. But it didn’t look clean atmosphere at all because before the cleaners left the shopkeeper had come and started throwing their shop’s scraps and dust. They cleaned their shops by the mess the street and market and as much as the day passed away passer-by gave the company. In Bangladesh, the pollution problem is connected with the population and the cities are polluted than the village. Dhaka the capital of Bangladesh which makes many records on its environmental state. Dhaka city needs 2.1 billion liters of water a day (L/day). Dhaka WASA provides 1.45 billion L/day, mostly from groundwater through its 400 deep Tube well, and the remainder is from the Shitalakshya River, which is becoming increasingly polluted. Now Dhaka is ranking top in air pollution. A new source of air pollution is an increasing ‘hole’ in the ozone layer in the atmosphere above Antarctica, coupled with growing evidence of global ozone depletion. Above 7800 brick kilns are in Bangladesh and most are in Dhaka city. Brick kilns are the main and 1st reason for this toxic air. Secondly, the huge number of the population needs huge number of transport and the unfit vehicle is contributing to air pollution in a great way. When a traffic jam start and carry on for a long time but all the vehicle engine never keeps off. So continuous vehicle horns and smog emissions, heat of the sun all make the worst situation. The waste of human beings or industrial all are going directly in the river or canal. Ultimately in the bay of Bengal and from some years, the tourist section in cox Bazar is the main culprit to sea pollution. All other cities are the same condition little or more little. But the amount of pollution in the village in Bangladesh is really less than in cities. Most villagers are not using plastic as much city people but the touch of urbanization the condition is becoming worse.
Unbalanced urbanization: Bangladesh is now a developing country. For the upcoming deserter and modernization people of Bangladesh also busy constructing buildings, roads, industry or other institutions. But their plan is not any long-term process. The almost full time of year much constructive work occurred as road construction, gas line, waterline, industry, home contractions. The 11,227 square kilometers covered for the only homesteads because most people are far from knowledge and technology. They don’t have any idea how they waste the land with their one or two-storied house or slum type home. There are urban areas, rural area and mixed up both. In Bangladesh, urban areas cover 950 square kilometers. Overgrowth rate of people, lackness of land, unplanned construction, deserter arising the slums rapidly. The health of the urban poor or slum dwellers is primarily due to crowding and lack of access to basic services, such as water and sanitation. Consequences of these living conditions include stress due to crowding, insecurity due to lack of housing and land tenure, various types of illegal or criminal activities, including violence, drug use, prostitution, etc. In Bangladesh, people take a bath every day even sometimes more. They always try to keep their homes neat and clean, no matter how the condition is. But when you see the streets, markets, institutions, the outside atmosphere it always dusty and dirty. Hardly found any dustbin or whatever you find those are having the ill condition. Drains are filled with wastage, dump yard is out of maintenance, people don’t use a public toilet, plastic bags are used in daily life, cutting uncountable trees all are connected with climate change.
Unbalanced Industrialization: Bangladesh is fully depended and suitable for agriculture. But for the extra amount of people, we need a big source of employment. After Independence Bangladesh has a great achievement in the industrial section. But this industry is not surrounded by agriculture. Sudden a revolution many people can’t cope up with this Industrialization. The unemployment is too much that’s why the industry owner having a good profit in less labor cost. The income even can’t fulfill their basic needs. If conditions are so bad, why do people move to these areas? Presumably, because there are better (perceived) chances to find cash from employment. The industrial area is built in crops field, filled Waterland, wooded area or in the forest. Such a chance of employment is making changes in biodiversity. Before constructive work for industries and after construction these industries throw their polluted air in the environment. Industrial wastage is dropped in water without refined. The chemical and wastage make water pollution as well as soil pollution. This industry is not in any deserts which thousand amount of machines responsible for harsh noise pollution. One industry is a source of water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution, noise pollution. Recently the government of Bangladesh planned many Hi-Tech park projects and 100 special economic zones are in the process. Bangladesh is moving on to the path of industrialization from agriculture in the twenty-first century.
Deforestation: In Bangladesh, 2,154 square kilometers (2,15,400 ha) are covered by forests. As per the topographical condition forests of Bangladesh are divided by three-part 1. Hill forest 2. Plain sal forest and 3.Mangrove littoral forest. There are semi-evergreen forests in the Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet hills, Sal forests in Tangail, Mymensingh, and Dinajpur, and the mangrove forest in the Sundarbans. This forest area is not only used for livelihood but also for shelter. The so-called protected forest is lost its trees due to illegal timber business. In the rural areas, people plant many trees usually for the source of fruits but as for urbanization, Industrialization, pollution, natural disasters, overpopulation, energy production, transportation are reduced the amount of forestland. The estimated rate of deforestation being 8,000 ha per year. Some sources quote satellite surveys and note that forests are declining at a rate of nearly 70,000 ha per year and Bangladesh has less than 0.02 ha of forest land per person, one of the lowest forest-man ratios in the world. If the current trend continues, forests are likely to disappear altogether in the next 35-40 years or earlier. In the small areas of Bangladesh 163 million people are living, now 1 million Rohingya are also added. The total value of 6,000 acres of deforested land in Rohingya camps is equivalent to Tk 741.31 crore or $86.67 million. The main reasons for deforestation in Cox’s Bazar include cutting down of trees to make space for Rohingya camps, build homes and to use as fuels.
Bangladesh is highly affected by climate change but not as much as the people of Bangladeshi responsible for climate change. As you sow, so shall you reap but in future Bangladesh will reap much than whatever they sow.
Rowshon Ara/RA -14/2019