# Quantum computing – Definition, calculations, contribution and timeline

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Quantum computing, one of the “jazziest and most mysterious concepts” in science, has struggled to come of age. Traditional models of computing such as the Turing machine or Lambda calculus rely on “classical”. Quantum computing is the study of a non-classical model of computation.

### What is quantum?

Quantum is a word practically we all know that but as relatively some can understand it properly. Because it has multiple meanings in various contexts, but more, it’s because the word is so often misappropriated.  Quantum is the Latin word (meaning ‘how great’)  for the amount and, in modern understanding, means the smallest possible discrete unit of any physical property such as energy or matter. In physics, a quantum ( plural quanta)  is a discrete quantity of energy proportional in magnitude to the frequency of the radiation it represents.

### quantum computing

Quantum computing, one of the “jazziest and most mysterious concepts” in science, has struggled to come of age. Traditional models of computing such as the Turing machine or Lambda calculus rely on “classical”. Quantum computing is the study of a non-classical model of computation. Most of the traditional models are representations of computational memory.

This is a system that can be found in one of a finite set of possible states, each of which is physically distinct. It is frequently convenient to represent the state of this memory as a string of symbols; most simply, as a string of symbols 0 and 1. In this term, the fundamental unit of memory is called a bit. A quantum computation could transform the memory into a quantum superposition of possible classical states. In the quantum scenario, the fundamental unit of memory is called a qubit.

##### Quantum supremacy:

In quantum computing, quantum supremacy is the goal of demonstrating that a programmable quantum device can solve a problem that classical computers practically cannot. A quantum device can solve a problem correctly faster than classical computers. The field of quantum computing is closely related to quantum information science, which includes quantum cryptography and quantum communication. By quantum computing, a device could take 200 seconds for a series of operations where a supercomputer would take 10000 years to complete.  A quantum computer is a device that could perform quantum computation.

### Quantum to quantum computing

The revolution idea about quantum started in the mind of Max Planck. German theoretical physicist Max Planck invented energy quantum in 1900. He solved the black body radiation problem. He won Nobel prize in 1918 due to the quantum theory. Neil Bohr was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding the atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

Max Planck and Neil Bhor both consider finding the father of quantum theory each received a novel prize in physics for their work in quanta. Einstein is considered the third founder of Quantum Theory because he described light as quanta in his theory of the Photoelectric Effect, for which he won the 1921 Nobel Prize.

In 1960 Stephen Wiesner invented conjugate coding. He is a research physicist who discovered several of the most important ideas in quantum information theory in 1960-1970.

##### Professor David Finkelstein

David Finkelstein was a professor of physics at the Georgia Institute of Technology. His most of the work is directed toward a quantum theory of space-time structure.  A quantum computer with spins as quantum bits was also formulated for use as a quantum spacetime in 1968. Alexander Holevo is a Soviet and Russian mathematician, one of the pioneers of quantum information science.

In 1973 he published a paper showing that n qubits cannot carry that more than n classical bits of information. Charles H. Bennett shows that computation can be done reversibly. Charles Henry Bennett is a physicist, information theorist and IBM Fellow at IBM Research. He discovered, with Gilles Brassard, the concept of quantum cryptography and is one of the founding fathers of modern quantum information theory. Polish mathematical physicist Roman Stanisław Ingarden publishes a seminal paper entitled “Quantum Information Theory” in Reports on Mathematical Physics, vol. 10, 43–72, 1976.

##### Paul Benioff described

In 1980 Paul Benioff described quantum mechanical Hamiltonian models of computers. Yuri Manin proposed an idea of quantum computing. In 1981 At the First Conference on the Physics of Computation, held at MIT in May, Paul Benioff and Richard Feynman give talks on quantum computing. In Feynman’s talk, he observed that it appeared to be impossible to efficiently simulate the evolution of a quantum system on a classical computer, and he proposed a basic model for a quantum computer.

In 1982 Paul Benioff proposes the first recognizable theoretical framework for a quantum computer. In 1985 David Deutsch, at the University of Oxford, describes the first universal quantum computer. Just as a Universal Turing machine can simulate any other Turing machine efficiently (Church-Turing thesis), so the universal quantum computer is able to simulate any other quantum computer with at most a polynomial slowdown.

So in general, the field of quantum computing was initiated by the work of Paul Benioff and Yuri Manin in 1980, Richard Feynman in 1982, and David Deutsch in 1985. Around 1960-1973 the idea was beginning to form, but the field really started spreading in the 1980s. The field has been changing and evolving rapidly throughout 1980-2000 and keeps evolving.

##### Quantum machine

A quantum machine is a result of more than a century’s worth of research and where thousand of researchers has been involving with it. It has been talking about science from the last century. There is an increasing amount of investment in quantum computing by governments, established companies, and start-ups. There is all big-name are involved such as  IBM, Google, Alibaba, Hewlett Packard, Tencent, Baidu, and Huawei all doing their own research.

If you listen to the discussion of quantum computing, you would think that there is something called science fiction. But we have reached the edge of a computer technology that disregards logic and even fails to imagine. The transistors used by the computer are so small that they can be fabricated only with handheld technology. So computer inventors have begun to look for possible solutions at the nuclear and ultra-nuclear levels, known as quantum computing.

Big companies in the tech world have begun a fierce competition to create sustainable quantum computers and are trying to market them commercially. Quantum computers will be able to provide computing power, which is not possible for conventional classical computers. It can solve any kind of problem very quickly.

### Let’s learn about the use of the quantum computer

##### New computing beyond logic:

To understand the working of quantum computing, one must first know what a quantum computer is. Quantum physics has rejected logic or logic since the first atomic research was conducted in the early 20th century.

Quantum particles can move back and forth at the same time, staying in two places at the same time. Quantum particles can move back and front at the same time, staying in two places at the same time. That means a quantum particle or a particle of the atomic dimension can be in the same state at all times. Because of this strange behavior, researchers are thinking of taking advantage of quantum computers.

##### The timing of calculations will be reduced

The current computer runs a bit. But the quantum computer will be run as a qubit. The current computer basically stores the data in bits. This bit is a binary ‘0’ or ‘1’ representation, which acts as an electrical or photodetector. This bytes method is made up of eight bits of matching bytes, which is usually capable of storing a signal. Then what is the qubit actually? It also uses a 0-1 binary to store data. But not differently, with one way.

Likely quantum is the particle of the substance and the religion of the waves described in the theory of quantum. This is because, in the quantum world, the same particle can be in one place at the same time, and its movement between the wave and the particle movement is also quite simple.

This is the main strength of a quantum computer, which enables it to store many data simultaneously with a coefficient of 0-1. It will multiply its strength, not double. Because his energy increases at a geometric rate. For example, if 4 digits can be stored in two cubits, three cubits will go to 8, and four cubits will be able to save 16 numbers. It also gives the ability to perform multiple calculations at the same time. Every day we access a lot of data and information. It takes a lot of computing power to extract meaningful insights from the data that is processed. The quantum computer will save that time.

##### The impossible will be possible

Suppose a problem takes billions of years to complete, but by a quantum computer that can be solved in a few seconds. That means a quantum computer can solve almost impossible mathematical problems. What was once considered impossible, will not be impossible? Quantum computers will move behind the conventional computer.

##### Data security:

Many people consider encryption to be sufficient for information security. But virtual encryption that is not possible to break encryption can be created. This will change the data security situation. Quantum computers can break most of the current encryption methods. Instead, there will be alternatives to stop hacking.

##### All in one:

Quantum computers can be called an all-rounder. On a traditional computer, tasks such as mail, spreadsheet or desktop publishing can be done well. However, the goal of creating a quantum computer is different.
It can be used as a tool to solve various problems. For example, a quantum computer can be used to determine the exact flight schedule of an airport.

##### King of motion:

Google recently announced the achievement of supremacy on quantum computers. The report, published in the famous science journal Nature, says that google’s quantum team has gone a step further in quantum computing. Google’s sycamore processor has been able to complete a calculation in three minutes, which takes about 10,000 years to make by the most current powerful computer. According to Catherine Mcgeoch, a researcher at the university of Amhurst, quantum computers are thousands of times faster than conventional computers.

#### Big data solutions

Every day we are generating 2.5 exabytes of data, which is equal to laptop’s 50 lacs content. No computer will analyze this huge data repository. It is possible for a quantum computer to meet the needs of the big data era by processing such information. The era of machines is coming in the future. Data will also be created from each of the smaller devices. A quantum computer will be able to accurately analyze these data.

##### Affordableelectricity

Quantum computers don’t need too much electricity. It will use less than one thousand times less electricity because a method called quantum tunneling is used to reduce the cost of electricity. Besides, this computer is fragile, any kind of vibration can create anomalies by affecting the atom.

## Advanced software and machine learning

A number of algorithms have already been created for quantum computers. Among these, Grover’s algorithm for finding an unstructured database, and every algorithm is significant for a large number of applications. Once a durable quantum computer is created, machine learning will help reduce the time needed to solve problems.

Mainly Quantum computers can make all those possible operations which are impossible by classical computers. But that doesn’t mean that quantum computer advantage will replace the classical computers suddenly. It’s more about proving that quantum computing is able to offer compelling solutions more efficiently.

Quantum computer is currently a hot topic for an announcement from a major tech giant.  The USA, UK and many European countries are now on the verge of making quantum computers. Other hand China is also on track. All want quantum computers. Quantum computers are powerful yet so difficult to build that whoever can crack the code will have a lasting powerful advantage.

However, the tech giants, including Google, IBM, Microsoft, Intel, Alibaba, are doing the most pressing of quantum computer-related studies. The reason is very clear. Those who can win this competition, I mean who can make quantum computers, that organization will be able to establish a new generation of technology business monopoly. It will be like a jackpot. So a lot of investment is being done in quantum research.

### What is quantum computing?

Usually, the present computer works on the basis of a binary digit. In binary, there are two-digit 1 and 0 to use. With this two-digit, the present computer operates all programs. The Telegraph reports that the current system can use 1 or 0 on the computer. Whereas quantum computers can represent both. The basic unit of this computer is called cubits. Quantum computers can solve complex mathematical problems quickly because of their unique ability to use 0 and 1 as binary numbers.

The Economist reports that quantum computers rely on indecipherable and complex quantum mechanics. This computer works using quantum mechanics superposition and entanglement methods. However, the quantum computer that solves a few complex mathematical problems is very difficult and time-consuming for the current computer. In some cases even impossible.

Magazine WIRED says quantum bits or cubits can be formed in different ways. But it always represents 0 and 1. This whole process can be controlled electronically. However, cubits can do a lot more work than traditional computer bits.

### What will be the advantage?

Telegraph published an effective quantum computer that can open the door to infinite possibilities. Quantum computers will play an important role in creating new sustainable construction materials. It will help to make medicine to cure incurable illness like cancer or aids.”The impact will be unpredictable,” said Microsoft official Krista Sorey. We are just on the surface of the vast ocean of possibilities that quantum can do. With the help of quantum computers, we can understand the nature of the problem of global warming. At the same time, we will know how to reduce carbon dioxide and save our world.

Bob Sutter, vice president of technology firm IBM’s quantum division, thinks the quantum computers will start in a new revolution in the technology world. He also said the common people are still unable to access the breadth of the matter. Because of quantum computers, people will get more sustainable product,  foods will have a new taste. New medicine will be invented. By solving complex mathematical problems, current aircraft can be made even faster. These advanced planes will cost less to refuel. IBM’s research department says quantum computers can play a key role in the development of artificial intelligence. This will make artificial intelligence more perfect.

### Where is the problem?

There is a proverb, ” A man is known by the company he keeps.” That means heaven with the truth and destruction with evil. In the same way, the possibilities of quantum computers do not end when they are used by the hands of good people. And if the quantum computer becomes the cause of unlimited suffering if it falls into the hands of the wrong people. Just think once – your phone’s contact list even the ATM password has gone into the hands of others! What’s your feeling? Telegraph says quantum computers can break the cryptography of the current internet encryption.

As a result, if the computer is under the control of criminals, the internet system that has been around for so long could be completely broken. The personal information of billions of people will be lost. The government database can be hacked. The banking sector will collapse. Malicious hackers will be able to the sudden increase in wealth by controlling internet-based money transactions. The state defense system can be collapsed.

### Owner of the first quantum computer

Colin Wilmott, a quantum computing expert at Nottingham Trent University, said that the party who first owns the quantum computer will have this unlimited power. Quantum computers will pose a huge risk to the classic cryptography system. Economist says quantum computer abuse can destroy two trillion dollars worth of e-commerce industry worldwide. Because these financial transactions are made using the current internet cryptography. So if you can break this cryptography system, debit-credit card details, bank transactions, e-mails all internet-related information will be naked in one word. Then anyone who is able to swallow this information will be able to steal.

There is also the problem of state monarchy. Cryptographer Peter Soubé of Radboud University in the Netherlands said, “if someone looks at my own message or bank account after 10-20 years from now, ordinary people like me may not have any problem. But think once, what if I am a citizen of a repressive state? Won’t it become one of the tools of repression then?”

### Who will win the race?

some experts say that within the next five years, a quantum computer could be made that can be used on the internet. However, many say that it could not be possible to get a full and effective quantum computer from 12 to 15 years ago. But how the most powerful states and technology organizations give excessive attention to make a quantum computer, we can assume that that day is not too far away.

## Institutions are conducting research

Google is conducting full secured research on quantum computers in mountain view, California, USA. IBM and Microsoft are not in a standstill. Both these institutions are conducting research on this. However, experts say, google is a bit ahead of others. In the competition of international technology companies is also participated by China’s Alibaba and Huawei. Powerful states have also entered the race. The huge amount of money also invested in the game of power.

### Quantum research

Telegraph claims the Uk has invested the most money in quantum research! The British government announced in 2013 that it would invest £270 million in the research of the national quantum technology program. The United States is bringing a 10-year investment project to improve quantum technology. On the other hand, China has allocated \$10 billion to establish a quantum information science-based laboratory at the national level by 2020.

So, it seems, everyone has gone to the races about who will go-ahead to create a quantum computer. There is no difference between a tech giant or a powerful state. However, the parties who can put their hands first in this quantum jackpot will be able to come under the economic and technological leadership of the world. The hope of technology-savvy and common people is one and the same – quantum computers should not fall into the hands of hackers!

### Quantum computer looks

How does the computer look? Usually, the computer looks like a square box with a CPU, monitor, and mouse. Now scientist spends their sweat on making a computer which will look like an inverse cake. Exactly when hanging four or five layers of cakes upside down, just like that. There will be many metallic cylinders and compressive wire. Above all underneath there will be a small black chip. This quaint device will be called a quantum computer. The scientist thinks that computers will change the entire technology world fully.

How will the change really be like? There are some ‘but’ in this section. This quantum computer is completely new compared to the current computer system. A supercomputer takes a thousand years to solve a complex calculation where the quantum computer can solve that in just a few seconds. The new medicine can be discovered by a quantum computer. The discovery of new substances will also bring revolutionary momentum. In a line, a quantum computer will create a new era in the technology world. The full computer science will be changed.

There is some black side also. There is some issue with the quantum computer. Now the whole world is living under a root because of the Internet. Everyone is so connected, the distance is reduced. The world is becoming small, that’s why we called the world as a global village. We can express our little emotions through social media even important money transactions.

##### Some encryption

At present this internet connection follows some encryption. This encryption is created by cryptography. Being encrypted keeps the internet safe and prevents user information from being lost. But the problem is that the quantum computer can be proved as a killer for present internet encryption. The quantum computer can hack present internet cryptography just a second. So if quantum computer technology falls into the hands of a malicious hacker, the data of billions of internet users around the world will be at risk! Even important state data, the information will not be safe. Secret intelligence and defense information will no longer be kept secret.

#### What are cryptography and encryption?

Upward there are 2 words cryptography and encryption. I don’t give you any kind of big academic definition. Let’s go through a simple example, I feel it will be easy for you to understand. Think you fall in love and you wanted to give a message to your partner but this is not so easy because anyone can read your message.

So what can you do in this situation? There is a way that you can give the message to your partner and also nobody can understand what is actually you write. This process name is encryption and for this encryption, you have to know cryptography. I mean how to write an undecipherable message. As an example,” I love you. ” It’s not encryption but,”eovl I ouy.” This can be considered as encryption. You feel it’s too easy but what about now, “9 1215225 251521”. I don’t think it isn’t so simple to anyone who can understand. People may be considered any phone number. According to the English alphabet, the latter of the position really has meaning.

#### Encryption

I          L, O,   V, E         Y, O,   U
9        12,15,22, 5        25,15, 21

What am I actually writing it’s not cryptography, not even encryption. I make it as my wish, just for example. But the actual process of encryption that message is known as an ‘encrypted message’. In the term of cryptography, the message will be meaningless generally but undecipherable. Encryption can also be described as the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense.

So this is so complex to realize what actually wrote. For understanding ‘encrypted message’ your partner also have the ability to understand. This special technique named is cryptography and who have this ability they know as a cryptographer. They do all this in a mathematical formula. This formula is specifically known as the “encryption algorithm.” All this process, formula, the study of years a cryptographer use for the purpose of not understand the important information by any third party.

### Cyber cryptography and encryption

Now switch to cyber cryptography and encryption. Cryptography is a specialized area of cybersecurity. Kaspersky Lab has defined it as follows: “Cryptography is the study of secure communications techniques that allow only the sender and intended recipient of a message to view its contents. In addition, cryptography also covers the obfuscation of information in images using techniques such as microdots or merging.”

Now cryptography is the fundamental technology used to protect information as it travels over the Internet. Every day, encryption is used to protect the content of web transactions, email, newsgroups, chat, web conferencing, and telephone calls as they are sent over the Internet. So, in your internet life, encryption is the shield that gives you the courage to share your information freely in the internet world.

### The future quantum computer and encryption

Previously I note down those quantum computers will change the current technology world fully. Think your secret is unsafe, hackers know your inbox message, phone number, birth date, bank account number, credit card password. How will you feel? This is gonna happen to you with a quantum computer. Quantum computing will break your encryption in a few years.

Modern public-key encryption is currently good enough to meet enterprise requirements, according to experts. We are soon going to get a more powerful quantum computer for the sake of advanced physics. Such future devices would still be able to decrypt present-day communications, allowing anyone to decrypt data transmitted today. So now it’s time to start developing quantum-safe cryptography even before the quantum computer is built.  The field of quantum-safe cryptography, also called post-quantum or quantum-resistant cryptography, aims to construct public-key cryptosystems that are believed to be secure even against quantum computers. Now the world is waiting for the result of a superpower quantum computer instead of a safe internet life on the basis of quantum-resistant cryptography.

Assalamualaikum. I am Rowshon Ara. I am from Bangladesh. I have a huge interest in blogging. Blogging is the only way to describe my thoughts to other people and most importantly which can remain decade to decade. If you really notice something special from my writing don't forget to inform me in the comment section. It can take only some seconds but which can make my day. Have a good day.